Ethiopian Monks maintain the only presence by black people in Jerusalem

Above: The roof of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, Christianity’s most holy place, where Ethiopians monks have lived for a very, very long time. This image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution.

Publisher’s Note:

This article was first published in January 2003. The piece appeared in the context of the July 2002 brawl that erupted on the roof of Christianity’s most holy place between Ethiopian and Egyptian monks.

“Eleven monks were treated in hospital after a fight broke out for control of the roof of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, the traditional site of Jesus’s crucifixion, burial and resurrection”, wrote Alan Philps, a Jerusalem based reporter for the Daily Telegraph.

“The fracas involved monks from the Ethiopian Orthodox church and the Coptic church of Egypt, who have been vying for control of the rooftop for centuries.”

As part of our Millennium series on the relationship between Ethiopia and the African Diaspora, we have selected part of the original article from our archives with a hope that it may generate a healthy discussion on the subject.

Deir Sultan, Ethiopia and the Black World
By NEGUSSAY AYELE

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Above: Main entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Date: 27/03/2005, Easter Sunday. This image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution.

Unknown by much of the world, monks and nuns of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, have for centuries quietly maintained the only presence by black people in one of Christianity’s holiest sites—the Church of the Holy Sepulchre of Jesus Christ in Jerusalem.

Through the vagaries and vicissitudes of millennial history and landlord changes in Jerusalem and the Middle East region, Ethiopian monks have retained their monastic convent in what has come to be known as Deir Sultan or the Monastery of the Sultan for more than a thousand years.

Likewise, others that have their respective presences in the area at different periods include Armenian, Russian, Syrian, Egyptian and Greek Orthodox/Coptic Churches as well as the Holy See.

As one writer put it recently, “For more than 1500 years, the Church of Ethiopia survived in Jerusalem. Its survival has not, in the last resort, been dependent on politics, but on the faith of individual monks that we should look for the vindication of the Church’s presence in Jerusalem…. They are attracted in Jerusalem not by a hope for material gain or comfort, but by faith.”

It is hoped that public discussion on this all-important subject will be joined by individuals and groups from all over the world. We hope that others with more detailed and/or first hand knowledge about the subject will join in the discussion.

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Above: Painting on the wall of the Ethiopian part of the church of the Holy Sepulcher. Photo by Iweze Davidson.

Accounts of Ethiopian presence in Jerusalem invoke the Bible to establish the origin of Ethiopian presence in Jerusalem.

Accordingly, some Ethiopians refer to the story of the encounter in Jerusalem between Queen of Sheba–believed to have been a ruler in Ethiopia and environs–and King Solomon, cited, for instance, in I Kings 10: 1-13.

According to this version, Ethiopia’s presence in the region was already established about 1000 B.C. possibly through land grant to the visiting Queen, and that later transformation into Ethiopian Orthodox Christian monastery is an extension of that same property.

Others refer to the New Testament account of Acts 8: 26-40 which relates the conversion to Christianity of the envoy of Ethiopia’s Queen Candace (Hendeke) to Jerusalem in the first century A.D., thereby signaling the early phase of Ethiopia’s adoption of Christianity. This event may have led to the probable establishment of a center of worship in Jerusalem for Ethiopian pilgrims, priests, monks and nuns.

Keeping these renditions as a backdrop, what can be said for certain is the following: Ethiopian monastic activities in Jerusalem were observed and reported by contemporary residents and sojourners during the early years of the Christian era.

By the time of the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem and the region (634-644 A.D.) khalif Omar is said to have confirmed Ethiopian physical presence in Jerusalem’s Christian holy places, including the Church of St. Helena, which encompasses the Holy Sepulchre of the Lord Jesus Christ.

His firman or directive of 636 declared “the Iberian and Abyssinian communities remain there” while also recognizing the rights of other Christian communities to make pilgrimages in the Christian holy places of Jerusalem.

Because Jerusalem and the region around it, has been subjected to frequent invasions and changing landlords, stakes in the holy places were often part of the political whims of respective powers that be.

Subsequently, upon their conquest of Jerusalem in 1099, the Crusaders had kicked out Orthodox/Coptic monks from the monasteries and installed Augustine monks instead. However, when in 1187 Salaheddin wrested Jerusalem from the Crusaders, he restored the presence of the Ethiopian and other Orthodox/Coptic monks in the holy places.

When political powers were not playing havoc with their claims to the holy places, the different Christian sects would often carry on their own internecine conflicts among themselves, at times with violent results.

Contemporary records and reports indicate that the Ethiopian presence in the holy places in Jerusalem was rather much more substantial throughout much of the period up to the 18th and 19th centuries.

For example, an Italian pilgrim, Barbore Morsini, is cited as having written in 1614 that “the Chapels of St. Mary of Golgotha and of St. Paul…the grotto of David on Mount Sion and an altar at Bethlehem…” among others were in the possession of the Ethiopians.

From the 16th to the middle of the 19th centuries, virtually the whole of the Middle East was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. When one of the Zagwe kings in Ethiopia, King Lalibela (1190-1225), had trouble maintaining unhampered contacts with the monks in Jerusalem, he decided to build a new Jerusalem in his land. In the process he left behind one of the true architectural wonders known as the Rock-hewn Churches of Lalibela.

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Above: Lalibela. This image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution.

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Above: Lalibela. This image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution.

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Above: Lalibela. This image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution.

The Ottomans also controlled Egypt and much of the Red Sea littoral and thereby circumscribed Christian Ethiopia’s communication with the outside world, including Jerusalem.

Besides, they had also tried but failed to subdue Ethiopia altogether. Though Ethiopia’s independent existence was continuously under duress not only from the Ottomans but also their colonial surrogate, Egypt as well as from the dervishes in the Sudan, the Ethiopian monastery somehow survived during this period. Whenever they could, Ethiopian rulers and other personages as well as church establishments sent subsidies and even bought plots of land where in time churches and residential buildings for Ethiopian pilgrims were built in and around Jerusalem. Church leaders in Jerusalem often represented the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in ecumenical councils and meetings in Florence and other fora.

During the 16th and 17th centuries the Ottoman rulers of the region including Palestine and, of course, Jerusalem, tried to stabilize the continuing clamor and bickering among the Christian sects claiming sites in the Christian holy places. To that effect, Ottoman rulers including Sultan Selim I (1512-1520) and Suleiman “the Magnificent” (1520-1566) as well as later ones in the 19th century, issued edicts or firmans regulating and detailing by name which group of monks would be housed where and the protocol governing their respective religious ceremonies. These edicts are called firmans of the Status Quo for all Christian claimants in Jerusalem’s holy places including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which came to be called Deir Sultan or the monastery (place) of the Sultan.

Ethiopians referred to it endearingly as Debre Sultan. Most observers of the scene in the latter part of the 19th Century as well as honest spokesmen for some of the sects attest to the fact that from time immemorial the Ethiopian monks had pride of place in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Deir Sultan). Despite their meager existence and pressures from fellow monks from other countries, the Ethiopian monks survived through the difficult periods their country was going through such as the period of feudal autarchy (1769-1855).

Still, in every document or reference since the opening of the Christian era, Ethiopia and Ethiopian monks have been mentioned in connection with Christian holy places in Jerusalem, by all alternating landlords and powers that be in the region.

As surrogates of the weakening Ottomans, the Egyptians were temporarily in control of Jerusalem (1831-1840). It was at this time, in 1838, that a plague is said to have occurred in the holy places, which in some mysterious ways of Byzantine proportions, claimed the lives of all Ethiopian monks.

The Ethiopians at this time were ensconced in a chapel of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Deir Sultan) as well as in other locales nearby. Immediately thereafter, the Egyptian authorities gave the keys of the Church to the Egyptian Coptic monks.

The Egyptian ruler, Ibrahim Pasha, then ordered that all thousands of very precious Ethiopian holy books and documents, including historical and ecclesiastical materials related to property deeds and rights, be burned—alleging conveniently that the plague was spawned by the Ethiopian parchments.

Monasteries are traditionally important hubs of learning and, given its location and its opportunity for interaction with the wider family of Christendom, the Ethiopian monastery in Jerusalem was even more so than others. That is how Ethiopians lost their choice possession in Deir Sultan.

By the time other monks arrived in Jerusalem, the Copts claimed their squatter’s rights, the new Ethiopian arrivals were eventually pushed off onto the open rooftop of the church, thanks largely to the machinations of the Egyptian Coptic church.

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Above: The roof of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, where Ethiopians maintain the only presence by black people in Christianity’s holiest shrine. This image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution.

Although efforts on behalf of Ethiopian monks in Jerusalem started in mid-19th Century with Ras Ali and Dejach Wube, it was the rise of Emperor Tewodros in 1855 in Ethiopia that put the Jerusalem monastery issue back onto international focus.

When Ethiopian monks numbering a hundred or so congregated in Jerusalem at the time, the Armenians had assumed superiority in the holy places. The Anglican bishop in Jerusalem then, Bishop Samuel Gobat witnessed the unholy attitude and behavior of the Armenians and the Copts towards their fellow Christian Ethiopians who were trying to reclaim their rights to the holy places in Jerusalem.

He wrote that the Ethiopian monks, nuns and pilgrims “were both intelligent and respectable, yet they were treated like slaves, or rather like beasts by the Copts and the Armenians combined…(the Ethiopians) could never enter their own chapel but when it pleased the Armenians to open it. …On one occasion, they could not get their chapel opened to perform funeral service for one of their members. The key to their convent being in the hands of their oppressors, they were locked up in their convent in the evening until it pleased their Coptic jailer to open it in the morning, so that in any severe attacks of illness, which are frequent there, they had no means of going out to call a physician.’’

It was awareness of such indignities suffered by Ethiopian monks in Jerusalem that is said to have impelled Emperor Tewodros to have visions of clearing the path between his domain and Jerusalem from Turkish/Egyptian control, and establishing something more than monastic presence there. In the event, one of the issues that contributed to the clash with British colonialists that consumed his life 1868, was the quest for adequate protection of the Ethiopian monks and their monastery in Jerusalem.

Emperor Yohannes IV (1872-1889), the priestly warrior king, used his relatively cordial relations with the British who were holding sway in the region then, to make representations on behalf of the Ethiopian monastery in Jerusalem.

He carried on regular pen-pal communications with the monks even before he became Emperor. He sent them money, he counseled them and he always asked them to pray for him and the country, saying, “For the prayers of the righteous help and serve in all matters. By the prayers of the righteous a country is saved.”

He used some war booty from his battles with Ottomans and their Egyptian surrogates, to buy land and started to build a church in Jerusalem. As he died fighting Sudanese/Dervish expansionists in 1889, his successor, Emperor Menelik completed the construction of the Church named Debre Gennet located on what was called “Ethiopian Street.”

During this period more monasteries, churches and residences were also built by Empresses Tayitu, Zewditu, Menen as well as by several other personages including Afe Negus Nessibu, Dejazmach Balcha, Woizeros Amarech Walelu, Beyenech Gebru, Altayeworq.

As of the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th Century the numbers of Ethiopian monks and nuns increased and so did overall Ethiopian pilgrimage and presence in Jerusalem.

In 1903, Emperor Menelik put $200, 000 thalers in a (Credileone) Bank in the region and ordained that interests from that savings be used exclusively as subsidy for the sustenance of the Ethiopian monks and nuns and the upkeep of Deir Sultan. Emperor Menelik’s 6-point edict also ordained that no one be allowed to draw from the capital in whole or in part.

Land was also purchased at various localities and a number of personalities including Empress Tayitu, and later Empress Menen, built churches there. British authorities supported a study on the history of the issue since at least the time of kalifa (Calif) Omar ((636) and correspondences and firmans and reaffirmations of Ethiopian rights in 1852, in an effort to resolve the chronic problems of conflicting claims to the holy sites in Jerusalem.

The 1925 study concluded that ”the Abyssinian (Ethiopian ) community in Palestine ought to be considered the only possessor of the convent Deir Es Sultan at Jerusalem with the Chapels which are there and the free and exclusive use of the doors which give entrance to the convent, the free use of the keys being understood.”

Until the Fascist invasion of Ethiopia in the 1930’s when Mussolini confiscated Ethiopian accounts and possessions everywhere, including in Jerusalem, the Ethiopian presence in Jerusalem had shown some semblance of stability and security, despite continuing intrigues by Copts, Armenians and their overlords in the region.

This was a most difficult and trying time for the Ethiopian monks in Jerusalem who were confronted with a situation never experienced in the country’s history, namely its occupation by a foreign power. And, just like some of their compatriots including Church leaders at home, some paid allegiance to the Fascist rulers albeit for the brief (1936-1941) interregnum.

Emperor Haile Sellassie was also a notable patron of the monastery cause, and the only monarch to have made several trips to Jerusalem, including en route to his self-exile to London in May, 1936.

Since at least the 1950s there was an Ethiopian Association for Jerusalem in Addis Ababa that coordinated annual Easter pilgrimages to Jerusalem. Hundreds of Ethiopians and other persons from Ethiopia and the Diaspora took advantage of its good offices to go there for absolution, supplication or felicitation, and the practice continues today.

Against all odds, historical, ecclesiastical and cultural bonding between Ethiopia and Jerusalem waxed over the years. The Ethiopian presence expanded beyond Deir Sultan including also numerous Ethiopian Churches, chapels, convents and properties. This condition required that the Patriarchate of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church designate Jerusalem as a major diocese to be administered under its own Archbishop.

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Above: Timket (epiphany) celebration by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church on the Jordan River, considered to be the place where Jesus was baptized. Jan. 1999. Photo by Iweze Davidson.

Ethiopia and Black Heritage In Jerusalem

For hundreds of years, the name or concept of Ethiopia has been a beacon for black/African identity liberty and dignity throughout the diaspora. The Biblical (Psalm 68:31) verse , “…Ethiopia shall soon stretch forth her hands unto God” has been universally taken to mean African people, black people at large, stretch out their hands to God (and only to God) in supplication, in felicitation or in absolution.

As Daniel Thwaite put it, for the Black man Ethiopia was always “…an incarnation of African independence.”

And today, Ethiopian monastic presence in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre or Deir Sultan in Jerusalem, is the only Black presence in the holiest place on earth for Christians. For much of its history, Ethiopian Christianity was largely hemmed in by alternating powers in the region. Likewise, Ethiopia used its own indigenous Ethiopic languages for liturgical and other purposes within its own territorial confines, instead of colonial or other lingua franca used in extended geographical spaces of the globe.

For these and other reasons, Ethiopia was not able to communicate effectively with the wider Black world in the past. Given the fact that until recently, most of the Black world within Africa and in the diaspora was also under colonial tutelage or under slavery, it was not easy to appreciate the significance of Ethiopian presence in Jerusalem. Consequently, even though Ethiopian/Black presence in Jerusalem has been maintained through untold sacrifices for centuries, the rest of the Black world outside of Ethiopia has not taken part in its blessings through pilgrimages to the holy sites and thereby develop concomitant bonding with the Ethiopian monastery in Jerusalem.

For nearly two millennia now, the Ethiopian Church and its adherent monks and priests have miraculously maintained custodianship of Deir Sultan, suffering through and surviving all the struggles we have glanced at in these pages. In fact, the survival of Ethiopian/Black presence in Christianity’s holy places in Jerusalem is matched only by the “Survival Ethiopian Independence” itself.

Indeed, Ethiopian presence in Deir Sultan represents not just Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity but all African/black Christians of all denominations who value the sacred legacy that the holy places of Jerusalem represent for Christians everywhere. It represents also the affirmation of the fact that Jerusalem is the birthplace of Christianity, just as adherents of Judaism and Islam claim it also.

The Ethiopian foothold at the rooftop of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is the only form of Black presence in Christianity’s holy places of Jerusalem. It ought to be secure, hallowed and sanctified ground by and for all Black folks everywhere who value it. The saga of Deir Sultan also represents part of Ethiopian history and culture. And that too is part of African/black history and culture regardless of religious orientation.

When a few years ago, an Ethiopian monk was asked by a writer why he had come to Jerusalem to face all the daily vicissitudes and indignities, he answered, “because it is Jerusalem.”


About the Author:
Dr. Negussay Ayele is a noted Ethiopian scholar. He is the author of the book Ethiopia and the United States, Volume I, the Season of Courtship, among many other publications. He lives in Los Angeles, California.

35 Responses to “Ethiopian Monks maintain the only presence by black people in Jerusalem”


  1. 1 Frank Jul 29th, 2007 at 10:03 pm

    I greatly appreciate this article.

    As a white evangelical clergyman serving as director of a strong urban social ministry in a major urban metroplex in the USA, I have been looking into the the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, to counter the Nation of Islam’s rehtoric “Christianity is a white-man’s ‘disease’.” I want our African-American Children and Caribbean-Black children to understand that the church was established first in Africa, by the Ethiopian Eunouch of Acts, before it was established anywhere else outside of the middle east. Therefore, they as CHidlren of African descent have a rich heritage in Christianity.

    I would welcome private communicaiton with the Author.

  2. 2 yoseph Oct 30th, 2007 at 4:28 pm

    I greatly appreciate the article as well.

    something still bothers me:
    it has to be deeply investigated what has really killed all the monks in 1838
    “… It was at this time, in 1838, that a PLAGUE is said to have occurred in the holy places, which in some mysterious ways of Byzantine proportions, claimed the lives of all Ethiopian monks.”

    was it really a plague only for them?if it was wasnot there anyone to help them? was there any genetic study of the fossils?
    it would be great if some one helps,i am curious.
    peace!

  3. 3 Saife Petros Dec 14th, 2007 at 6:19 pm

    Obviously, I’m not the author of this passage, but I was fortunate enough to be able to visit the Holy Land and to spend all of my time in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church Monasteries. I visited on four occasions and if anyone would like information (from my experience) I would love to share it.

    Sincerely,

    Saife Petros

  4. 4 Gizeaddis Dec 22nd, 2007 at 9:32 am

    really it is!
    the ethiopian orthodox church the only church that maintains the rules of GOd still today starting from the birth of Juses christ.
    the place where the ethiopians monks live(in jerusalem) was given to saba by king solomon. but many times the tried to take it.
    many Ethiopian Monks sacrified their lives for that. and their were also a problem from the direction of Israil and that of Palistine(the place is on the border).
    ther is a continous problem still today.
    strictly speaking the place belong only to ETHIOPIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH!
    may our government participate on that?!
    I hope so!
    God bless ETHIOPIA!
    Gizeaddis

  5. 5 Gabre Selassie Jan 21st, 2008 at 11:04 pm

    Grace and peace to all readers and commentary participants in the name of our Daily Beloved Creator Eyesus Kristos; First Power of the Holy Trinity.

    Thus, I find this topic of Ethiopia and Her Faith Natives present in Jesrusalem to be of a great significants base on the fact that Ethiopia was and is the first Country ever to be mentioned in the Holy Scripture and the place where Egzi’abher (God) starts His Creation.

    I do think that it is Egzi’abher’s (God) will that we Ethiopians maintain such a unique portion in Jerusalem. I do feel and think it is there for many reason to which I would like to testify that it is because of the many views of the charactoristics of our Creator His Faithful Followers and they to whom have been in His lawful present during that period of His infinite present in the preaching of the Holy Gospel.

    It is evident in the Holy Scripture that Ethiopia and the Ethiopian Peoples have been the true representation of the Black Race eventhough many have tried to denied this true. For in the time of Slavery our history was distorted during the Roman invasion into Jerusalem; for our Savior had told us that not one of those stone would have leave and therefore it is evident today with a multitude of other faith.

    May Egzi’abher Grace be with our Faithful always.

  6. 6 ras zacka Feb 11th, 2008 at 9:29 am

    LONG LIVE JHNOY HAILE SELASSIE 1 in the hearts of everyone.Rastafarians in Jamaica is telling the west that western theology is dead and eastern theology is indeed thriving.THE stone rejected is now become the chief corner stone.The ethiopian tewahido by abba yesehaq,was written by this great ethiopian monk who the emperor sent to teach us in jamaica and baptise us and Bob Marley in the true faith of JESUS CHRISTOS.abbayesehaq.com is the bishop personal website with excerpts from this book.I hope more people will investigate.one love.ras zacka

  7. 7 SonOfLight Feb 24th, 2008 at 8:30 pm

    Yeah, Tell dem Zacca, Blessed Be His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie the First;King of Kings; Lord of Lords; Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Elect of God and Light of The World; BLessed be His Eminence Abuna Yesehaq Lord Chief Of the Holy Ethiopian Orthodox Church. We as Africans have Nothing in the West all we have is the Holy Ethiopian Orthodox Church The Source of Power and Salvation in this Earth. Jah Rastafari Live!

  8. 8 Comment Mar 22nd, 2008 at 2:27 pm

    Thank you for the article, it is truly educational. For most Ethiopian Orthodox families, the story of our ancestores travelling to Jerusalem for pilgrimage is a common one. I am told by my grandfather and great grandfather about the Ethiopian Monks in Jerusalem.

    My only objection is the “Title” of the article. Why do we have to state black this black that, first black, last black? I love my identify as an Ethiopian, period. We are buying into the psychology of America, where mention of color is an absolute identify of people. This is not true of other countries, we are identified by our birth places not colors. It is not part of our conversation at home. If you go to the “Gedam” and speak of Ethiopians being the only black people in Jerusalem, they would not know what you are talking about. Just as Haile Silasse only knew how to be a King and an Ethiopian. It seems that we want to take too much responsibility when we speak of color for our identity, it is irrelevant; the next thing I know we shall separate ourselves by “Weight” and then speak of others as though they are completely different from us. I lack words to explain exactly what I mean to express here.

    And as to the last comment by “SonOLight”, you are confusing the term “Kingship” mentioned by Chirst and the bible and then Haile Selasse. Christ is the Heavenly King and Haile Selasse the Earthly King. Christ had no earthly possessions, Haile Selasee lived in a palace, what a difference! I love Haile Selasse and I had met him when he came to visit the city I lived in in early 70′s. He was a lovely King and has done a lot of good and was a source of pride for me. But, he was human just like you and me…

  9. 9 SonOfLight Mar 29th, 2008 at 9:30 pm

    The thing is we need to unite as a people without all the fighting about who says what. The fact that I know that His Majesty is the Returned Messiah from the loins of David in the Flesh, who smote the nations with the sword of his tongue in June 1936, should not prevent us from uniting. I mean Rasta is not here to convert people. We just know the truth and every man has to find the truth for themselves. I mean 2,000 years ago Peter and Mark, Paul all brothers with dreadlocks telling the people that Eyesus Kristos is the almighty, what did the people do? Ridicule them, attack them, imprison them, kill them, tell them “… you are worshipping a dead man.” Eyesus Kristos Medhane Alem is the same yesterday today and forever so when in this time the dreadlocks are telling you about Eyesus Kristos in his Kingly Character the response is the same as it was 2,000 years ago. Nothing new – Jah Rastafari, Abba Yesehaq!!! Further Burn Black and Burn White we are Ethiopians who are born in America, Barbados, Brazil, Jamaica etc. Black means what slavery, you are just you know Black. No country, no language, no religion, no culture just Black; sons and daughters of slaves; FIRE! What about white white, means pure, it means God. So Basically calling Europeans white is putting them above everyone what a horrible trick and trap. Jah Rastafari African God of Creation.

  10. 10 ethiopian warrior Jun 30th, 2008 at 6:28 am

    sorry,

    why you call ethiopians black ? this is totally brainwashed and not in accordance with ethiopian culture. beside that it is genetically proven that most ethiopians are not black, but brown-skinned caucasians. please educate yourself and don’t act like a black american.

    selam

  11. 11 Donavon Jul 20th, 2008 at 2:57 pm

    Sometimes I wonder why people even try to educate themselves with confusion and ignorance; the Bible specifically teaches us that the Gentiles (Europeans) are descendants of Noah’s son Japhet; according to the Ethiopic Book of Enoch, Noah himself was born albino(white), but since he had both the dominant and recessive genes, his sons Ham and Shem were born red (brown) and black. However the Ethiopians of the family of Japhet went into Europe; any person of Ethiopia with brown or even black skinned claiming to be European need to examined by a doctor. All people regardless are genetically related to Ethiopians, especially people of Africa. The Bible teaches us that Ham a son of Noah had four sons, Cush, Mizraim, Put and Canaan; these four sons are Ethiopians and became the forefathers to ALL OF AFRICA; the Bible goes even further by teaching us that Abraham was born in Ur, Chaldea (Shinar); according to Genesis 10:8-12 the land in which Abraham was born was founded by King Nimrod a son of Cush; the name Cush in Hebrew means “black or burnt faced”, and this name has been associated with Ethiopia since the beginning of time; according to Genesis 10:6, one of Cush’s (Ethiopian) brothers was named Kmt (Mizraim/Egypt/Kemet); the name Kmt (Kemet) means “the land of the black faces”, and since we know the ancient Egyptians were in fact Ethiopians, it makes sense that the people known as “black or burnt faced” (Cush) lived in the land of “the land of the black faces” (Kemet/Egypt/Mizraim); also the ancient Phonecians, Canaanites and all people from the line of Ham were in fact Ethiopians.

    The Bible specifically teaches us in Genesis 15:18 that Abraham inherited the lands of Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Assyria, Iraq and Canaan; according to Genesis 2:11-14 and Genesis 10:8-12, these lands were founded and ruled by sons/grandson of Ham ==> Cush, Mizraim, Canaan and King Nimrod all Ethiopian people. The Bible goes even further in Genesis 38:1-5, 46:10 and 46:20 that the Hebrew Israelites intermixed with the Hamitic Ethiopians; in Ezra 9:1 it is conferred that the Hebrew Israelites are a intermixture of Hamitic Ethiopians because the majority of the nations listed in this scripture are Hamitic Ethiopians. According to the Bible, King Solomon’s mother was named BathSHEBA; according to Genesis 10:7 SHEBA was a son of Cush’s son Raamah. According to Jeremiah 36:14, Yehudi (Jehudi) who was selected to read the scroll written by Jeremiah grandfather was named Cushi (Cush) or Ethiopian; also according to Zephaniah 1:1 the prophets own father was named Cushi (Ethiopian).

    Unfortunately many Ethiopians of Abesha descent have failed to realized the significance or truth in the Bible; the Bible is not about Ethiopia but Ethiopian people; according to Genesis 15:18 the land of the Ethiopians was to be Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Assyria, Iraq and Canaan, so based on this information we know for a fact that not all Ethiopians are born in modern Ethiopia, since Abraham the branch of the Ethiopian Hebrew Israelites was born in Ur, Chaldea modern day Iraq, and the majority of the Israelites in Biblical times were either born in Egypt and Israel. We as so called African Americans know for a fact we descend from the Ethiopic Hamites and Semites and that in fact we are Ethiopian Hebrew Israelites; we know this to be a fact because in Daniel 7:9 and Revelation 1:14 YHWH (GOD) the Messiah is described as having hair like pure WOOL; we know true Ethiopic people of Hebrew Israelite descent have this divine blessing of having hair like wool….so anybody claiming to be Israel needs to realize the truth about the divine blessing of woolly hair. Samuel, Sampson, Solomon, John the Baptist, James the brother of Jesus and the Messiah Himself grew their hair in dreadlocks and thus fulfilling what is said in Numbers 6:5. So I hope many of you of Abesha descent understand the prophecy in Deuteronomy 28:37 & 28:68, because many so called African Americans, African Cubans, African South Americans, African Caribbeans, etc., of the slave diaspora fit all the curses in Deuteronomy 28:15-68, verse 68 being the quencher of who is true Israel and who is not. Selah Bete Israel?

    Don

  12. 12 Ethiopian Warrior Jul 22nd, 2008 at 11:15 am

    Donavon,

    so you want to tell me my own history ? I am Abesha and I know that Abeshas who didn’t n mix with negroes look very different. Look Haile Sellassie for Example. I have never seen a African American or West African with such a nose and such a bone structure. I don’t think wooly hair is a sign for a negroe, since there a also white people and arabs who have much woolier hair than some real habeshas. There are also Abeshas with straight hair my friend, so you want to tell me that they are not abeshas ? And I think even the ethiopians who real wooly hair, don’t have this nappy, peepercorn style hair that black people have. If African Americans have softer hair than the real “negroes” of West African descent it is due to mixing with white people. So don’t say that you are Semites. There is no way that you are semites. Genetic tests reveal that most Amharas and Tigres are in the same genetic group as Arabs and Jews. It is proven my friend. You African Ameicans are either in the European group, because of mixing with whites, or you are in the bantu group. Even dark skin doesn’t mean that a person is a negroe, since there are many Indians and Pakistanis who are much darker than the average unmixed Abesha. Please every educated Abesha knows that Abeshas are a different race from black people.

    Bu you are right if you say all human beings are from ethiopia. But Noah was a man with hook nose, thin lips and white skin. Even today there a white skinned Abeshas. You want to tell me they are not abeshas ? Most Abeshas have brown or dark skin. You are right. This is because of living at the equator and the intensity of the sun in the ethiopian mountains. Since abeshas back migrated to ethiopia from asia thousand years ago, they adapted their skin color to the climate, since skin color changes very fast. This has nothing to do with race…Ethiopians and white people are the same, but differ only in skin color ad hair texture. Abeshas and Arabs are absolut the same. They are both semites. But since they mixed with other races they differ sometimes.

  13. 13 Dpnavon Jul 28th, 2008 at 6:38 am

    Ethiopian Warrior:

    Again I can tell you do not study the true source of Ethiopic peoples which is found in the Bible; according to Genesis 2:11-14 the lands mentioned in these scripture were founded/ruled by ancient Ethiopians from the line of HAM and not SHEM; refer to Genesis 2:11 and then to Genesis 10:7 and you will see that Havilah was a son of Cush (Ethiopia/Sudan) a son of HAM; if you refer to Genesis 15:18 and then compare this scripture with Genesis 2:11-14 and Genesis 10:8-12, you will see the modern location of these lands are Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iraq, Assyria and Canaan; so the ancient Hamitic Ethiopians according to Genesis 10:8-12 ruled these lands; according to Genesis 2:11-14 these lands were the Garden of Eden. So Abraham a Semitic Ethiopian was born in a land of Hamitic Ethiopians.

    Abesha are only one race of Ethiopians; Ethiopians at least the real ones have woolly hair; read Daniel 7:9 and you will see that YHWH (GOD) Himself is described as having hair like wool, so for you to say woolly hair is not divine shows you do not study the true HISTORY of the Ethiopic people; when you look at the ancient images and statutes of the ancient Egyptians who we know 100% were Ethiopians, they look nothing like you Abesha nor are their noses look like any of the pointed noses of the Abesha; you have let European scientist deceive you into thinking you are related to them, when in fact that is true, however Europeans are from the tribe of Japhet; how do we know this, well when you read Acts 9:15, the Messiah Himself tells Paul he would be chosen to go to the Gentiles (Romans/Greeks/Europeans, etc.); did Paul go to west Africa or Ethiopia? Nope, he went to Greece, Turkey, Syria and Rome.

    According to Genesis 38:1-5, Genesis 46:10, Genesis 46:20 and Ezra 9:1 the Hebrew Israelites intermixed with Hamitic Ethiopians like the Egyptians and Canaanites. Read Luke 21:24 and the Messiah Himself said the Israelites would be scattered to all nations, and when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD, many of the Hebrew Israelites fled into East, North, South and west Africa; Ethiopians of the transatlantic slave trade are the only Ethiopian Hebrew Israelites who fit the prophecy in Deuteronomy 28:68. The Atlantic ocean till the end of the 19th century was called the Ethiopian Ocean so go figure who are the TRUE Ethiopians of the Bible and the Ethiopian Hebrew Israelites. According to Genesis 25:2 Abraham had a son named Midian who became the father of the people of Midian; when Moses fled into the land of Midian the priest of Midian Reuel (Jethro) gave Moses his daughter for a wife; to confer this woman Moses married was Ethiopian refer to Numbers 12:1. According to the Bible Sampson had 7 locks (dreadlocks) of hair, and with common sense we know that only Ethiopians with woolly hair can grow their hair in dreadlocks, and not Ethiopians with curly or even straight hair. Original Ethiopic people had curly, straight and woolly hair; the Messiah in Revelation 1:14 is described as having hair like wool just like in Daniel 7:9, so again the Hebrew Israelites of the Bible were nappy headed Ethiopians with woolly hair; read Acts 13:1-2 and you will read that you had Hebrew Israelite prophets from Niger (West Africa) and Cyrene (Libya or North Africa); so again Ethiopic people are not just from present day Ethiopia, especially those claiming to be Hebrew Israelites.

    Look at my pic on my page http://www.tigerroundup.com/profile/DonavonMorrison and then compare it to the images of the Messiah found in the EOTC, and you will see I bare a striking resemblance to the Messiah because I am from the root of David; you can even compare the images of the Messiah on my web page as well, and you will notice for a fact the images there do not look like Abesha Ethiopians at all. You Abesha are a very beautiful Ethiopian people, but so are your brethern the so called African American. You have to remember the European Jews are not real Jews; these same Jews were known as the Pharisee’s and Sadducee’s of the Bible; they brainwashed our people then and now into believing their false doctrine versus that of the Messiah; this is why we so called African Americans went into slavery because many of our ancestors picked up the false doctrines of Islam and Judaism which are not at all from YHWH (GOD) and according to Deuteronomy 28 we would become a cursed people, and so called African Americans are the most cursed people of YHWH (GOD) on earth because we are His chosen seed, however many of us do not do as He says. You Abesha are our brethern and sisters, but remember the Jews of now are really atheist and they are brainwashing you with lies; this is why Italy attacked Ethiopia in WWII because they wanted the ark of the Covenant. Amhara and Tigray are genetically related to the Lemba of South Africa; today’s Arabs are a intermix of Europeans, Kurdish and Persians. Selah Bete Israel?

    Don

  14. 14 Ethiopian Warrior Jul 29th, 2008 at 2:03 pm

    donovan,

    whats wrong with you ? the lembas of south africa are in the so called cohen-jewish haplougroup, which is only a jewish genetic group. but most amharas and tigres ain the haplogroup J, in which most arabs and middle easterners are. there is no significant measurement of the kohen haplogroup in the amhara community. amharas are invaders from asia who penetrated ethiopia. thats why real amharas look caucasian and negroid. the name ethiopia is derived in the ethiopian tradition from a mann called Ityopis, a semite from the semitic “Joktan” tribe. ethiopian means in ethiopian tradition in no way black. thats maybe what the white jews did out of it. most semitic amharas look much more semitic than most white jews. in no way pure semitic amharas look negroid. sorry, i can see the difference between a semitic amhara and an african-american from 100 miles. only the white jews try to put the semitic amharas into the black race, because they want us to mix with other black so that we lose our genetic race and will be totally negroid in several years. many abeshas believe this jewish lies about ethiopians being black. but the jews know that the real semites and aryans are the ethnic amharas. thats why they supported bob marley and his agenda of haile sellassie being black. who owns bob marley record company “island records” ? Jews, my friend. they would never promote a topic which is not in accordance with their agenda. thats why bob marley got so famous with the help of the jews. you know my friend i live in germany, and even hitler stated that amhara ethiopians are an aryan and also semitic race with brown skin because of back migration to ethiopia. the german nazis said that abeshas never look like negroes and they are not negroes. everybody knows ist over here. please dont try to teach an ethiopian about his own history.

    find your own my friend.

  15. 15 Ethiopian Warrior Jul 30th, 2008 at 2:08 am

    Ethiopian Warrior:

    Again I am surprised to hear this from an Ethiopian; first of all in the book of Genesis 10:6 it says that Ham had four sons, Cush (Sudan/Ethiopia), Mizraim (Egypt), Put and Canaan; all four of these brothers are genetically Ethiopians; the Bible clearly teaches us that HAM had two brothers Shem and Japhet; we know that the people of Japhet were called Gentiles, because according to Acts 9:15 the Messiah chose Paul to go to the Gentiles and according to the book of Acts Paul went into Greece, Turkey, Rome, etc., all European nations; refer back to Matthew 10:5 and you will see the Messiah giving orders to the Apostles to not go to the Gentiles but to there own people; now if you refer to Acts 8:29-39 we know the Ethiopian Eunuch baptized by the Apostle Phillip was an Israelite because of what the Messiah said in Matthew 10:5 agreed?

    Now a real Ethiopian would use the HOLY BIBLE to verify his/her true ancestry, agree? Now let me teach you a lesson about ancient Ethiopia so refer back to Genesis 2:11-14 and you will see in verse 11 that Havilah was a son of Cush (Ethiopia) according to Genesis 10:7, agree? Now refer to Genesis 2:13 and then refer back to Genesis 10:6 and you will see that Cush (Sudan/Ethiopia) is a son of Ham, agree? Now refer back to Genesis 2:14 and you will see the lands here Assyria and near the Euphrates (Iraq/Chaldea/Shinar) according to Genesis 10:8-12 were lands created by another Ethiopian, King Nimrod a son of Cush (Ethiopian); so according to what I said above you have Ethiopians living in Assyria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and modern day Sudan/Ethiopia/Somalia agree? You say the Amhara come from Asia right? Well is not Saudi Arabia and Iraq listed above in the countries I presented considered Asia? Did I need to use DNA? Nope. Now that you understand you had Ethiopians living in Assyria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and modern day Sudan/Ethiopia/Somalia, we agree that Abram whose name was changed to AbraHAM because he would inherit the same lands mentioned above according to Genesis 15:18; remember the river Egypt (Nile) begins in Uganda, and the river Euphrates stretches all the way to Assyria (Syria), so gain the lands in which Abraham inherited in Genesis 15:18 are the same lands in Genesis 2:11-14 & Genesis 10:8-12 which are A aka the Garden of Eden aka the birthplace of mankind, agree? Now Abram literally was born in Africa, because he was born in Ur, Chaldea (Shinar) and according to Genesis 10:8-12 Chaldea (Shinar) was a land founded/ruled by King Nimrod an Ethiopian.

    We know from Genesis 10:6 and history that Cush (Sudan/Ethiopia), Mizraim (Egypt), Put and Canaan are genetically Ethiopians, agree? Well AbraHAM left Ur, Chaldea in Iraq after YHWH (GOD) confused the tongues of the people; however Abraham went into Egypt and Canaan and communicated with both these people of Ham, which means what? Abraham too was an Ethiopian; how do we know this? Well refer to Genesis 25:2 and you will see Abraham had a son named Midian who became the father of the people of Midian whose land was in Horeb (Mount Sinai, Egypt); again the land of Horeb according to Genesis 15:18 also consisted of Horeb, because the river Egypt (Nile) also runs into Egypt, agree? So again we have Ethiopians living in Egypt too, which makes sense because Abraham when he left Ur, Chaldea went into Egypt and communicated verbally with the Pharaoh of Egypt another Ethiopian genetically, agree? Well lets get back to proving Abraham was an Ethiopian, so we all know the story of Moses fleeing into the land of Midian after he killed an Egyptian, agree? Well the priest of Midian Reuel (Jethro) gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses as a wife; to confer this woman of Midian in which Moses married was Ethiopian, refer to Numbers 12:1; so here you see again that the people of Midian were Ethiopians, so if this is the case, we know that Midian a son of Abraham and his father Abraham were to Ethiopians, agree?

    Now we know King Solomon mother name was BathSHEBA which means daughter of Sheba; refer to Genesis 10:7 and you will see that Sheba was a son of Cush’s (Sudan/Ethiopia) son Raamah, agree? Now refer to 1 Kings 1:32-33 and 1:38-39 and you will see that King David ordered Nathan the prophet and Zadok the priest to anoint Solomon king in Gihon; refer back to Genesis 2:13 and remind yourself that Gihon was in where? Cush (Ethiopia), agree? Refer to Genesis 38:1-5, 46:10, 46:20 and you will see that the Israelites another Ethiopian people intermixed with other Ethiopian peoples the Egyptians and Canaanites, agree? Refer to Jeremiah 36:14 and you will see that Jehudi (Judah) who read the scroll of Jeremiah grandfather was named Cushi (Ethiopian), agree? Refer to Zephaniah 1:1 and you will see that the prophets name was what? Cushi (Ethiopian), agree? Not once does the Bible mentioned that the Israelites nor the sons of Ham intermixed with the Gentiles (Europeans); to say the Ethiopians are a Caucasian people would probably turn king Melenik II over in his grave after he defeated the Italians with courage; to say that Halie Selassie was not Ethiopian is very ridiculous coming from a person born in Ethiopia; I am not a Rasta, but I do realize that after Halie Selassie was dethroned, Ethiopia was never the same, and this is what you get when you mess with the family of YHWDH (Judah). I suggest you study the Bible because obviously been born in Ethiopia you have very little knowledge of the origins of Ethiopic people; remind you the Atlantic ocean in west Africa was until the 19th century was called the Ethiopian Ocean as was all of Africa; if you do the genetics of all people of African origin, they will have will have have the E3b Y-Haplogroup, and when you trace this E3b Y-Haplogroup, it goes back to the countries inherited by Abraham in Genesis 2:11-14, Genesis 10:8-12 and 15:18 which are the lands of Assyria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and modern day Sudan/Ethiopia/Somalia, but of course other nations of people with a different Y-Haplogroup have since populated modern day Assyria, Iraq and Saudi Arabia, however the origins of this Eb3 Y-Haplogroup always point back to North East Africa where Ethiopia is; so again genetically all Africans are Ethiopians, no matter how you try to deny it. Selah Beta Israel?

    Don

    http://www.tigerroundup.com/profile/DonavonMorrison

  16. 16 Ethiopian Warrior Jul 30th, 2008 at 6:31 pm

    yes, but amharas are mostly in the haplogroup j which puts them in the same cluster with the middle easterners and not with black africans. why you dont give a statement to the lembas, since you tried to tell me that they are in same the genetic cluster as the amharas and which is clerly not true ? ? you are right if you say asia was ethiopian in that time and all of them, abraham, solomon etc were ethiopian. but ethiopian doesnt mean bantu my friend. ethiopian means hooked nose with caucasian feature with dark to light skin and wooly to straight hair. like i said in ethiopian tradition the word “ethiopia” comes from a man who was called ityopis and who was a semite thats why the amharic language is related to the other semitic languages called hebrew and arabic, also aramaic. why is that west african bantu languages are not in the same language group ? because you are not semites my friend. i am sorry. even the so called indo european languages are related to the semitic languages, they both came from a lnguage caleed nostratic or so which is evidence that aryans (japhetites) and semites came from the same source. the same goes for the called hamitic languages. they are also related to the semitic languages. but the bantu languages are not hamitic my friend. you know the hooked nose and small lips are the sign for the semitic and also hamitic people. thats why somalis, who are hamitic, are also caucasian. beside that all haplogroups originated in ethiopia my friend, since all races were from the beginning located in ethiopia. but that doesnt mean that all people origanted from ethiopia are negroid or bantu. the caucasians have also theit heritage in ethiopia, since noah was an ethiopian and lived in ethiopia before the great flood. after that he lande with his boat in the caucasus. from there many ethiopians back migrated back to ethiopia like i said before,, and chages their skin color because of the climate in the ethiopia but kept their facial “caucasian” features.mongoloids and negroids are not caucasian but belong also to the seed of noah. but they are clerly a differnt race from the abesha ethiopians.

    you know it doesnt matter, we are all the same and human beings but dont try to tell me who i am, since even a blind man cann see the difference between a semit ethiopian and an west african. but they are also bantus in ethiopia of course and many mixed with abeshas since there was much slavery in ethiopia still 100 years ago. thats why many ethiopians look west african tody. but the abesha tribe in its original form is caucasian with hook nose small lips and and caucasian bodyshape. please my friend wake up and be proud on your own culture and dont try to take things that dont belong to you.
    you know skin color has nothing to do with race at all my friend. you can just measure race because of bon strucure and facial features. chinese people have also white skin sometimes but would you say that there the same race as europeans ? i dont think so.
    peace

  17. 17 Donavon Norwood Jul 30th, 2008 at 8:36 pm

    Ethiopian Warrior:

    The largest haplogroup in Ethiopia is the E1b1b or E3b; it is a sub-clade of the E1b1 or E3; African Americans and most Africans have the E1b1 (E3a) haplogroup, which makes Ethiopians in Ethiopia with the E1b1b (E3b) and African Americans with the e1b1a (E3a) related genetically; to be honest with you, those of us Ethiopians with the E1b1 (E3) haplogroup genetically are the Ethiopian Hebrew Israelites of the Bible. This E1b1 (E3) haplogroup is a sub-clade of the E1 haplogroup, and the E1 haplogroup is a sub-clade of the Haplogroup E (Y-DNA); the Haplogroup E (Y-DNA) originated in Ethiopia or the Near (Middle) East; Abraham did not speak a Semitic language because when he went into Egypt and Canaan two Hamitic Ethiopic peoples, he communicated verbally with them; Raahab who hid the Israelites on the roof of her home was a Canaanite, so again according to Genesis 10:6 Canaanites were genetically Ethiopians; Raahab a Hamitic Ethiopian too communicated verbally with the Israelites, as did Cushi (Ethiopian) in 2 Samuel 18:21 & 18:31-32 who was told by Joab to tell King David his son Absalom was dead; throughout the Bible you have the Ethiopian Hebrew Israelites communicating verbally with the Hamitic Ethiopians, why because genetically they were the same people and they intermixed with each other if this was not the case. So are you saying that Hamitic (Cushitic) Ethiopians speak a Semitic language? If you say yes obviously you are wrong because obviously the Israelites who intermixed with the Cushitic Ethiopians spoke the same language verbally with them as well. Plus we know from history that Biblical Hebrew was taken from the Canaanite (Phonecian) script, and again the Canaanites were Cushitic (Hamitic) Ethiopians; so if you want to speak authentic Hebrew know, try learning Ge’ez and I am sure you speak Amharic. As you see from the Haplogroup map: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Y-Haplogroups-1500AD-World-Map.GIF in ET (Ethiopia), the E3b or E1b1b is the largest Haplogroup, and the J Haplogroup is very small in percentage in Ethiopia. We know from Jeremiah 44:1 that the Israelites fled into Egypt; this makes sense because they have an ancient Israelite city in Elephantine, Egypt were they built a Temple and the priest kept the Ark of the Covenant; Elephantine, Egypt is right around the corner from Ethiopia, and I am 100% sure this is probably how the ark of the Covenant got into Ethiopia after the destruction of the Temple in Elephantine, Egypt. Alexander the Great knocked off the nose of the Great Sphinx and other Egyptian images not because they had a hooked nose like him, but because they had the big wide noses like the original Ethiopic people. TRUE FACT. Selah Bete Israel?

    Don

    http://www.tigerroundup.com/profile/DonavonMorrison

  18. 18 ethiopian warrior Jul 31st, 2008 at 7:23 am

    ok,

    The general parent Y-chromosome Haplogroup E1b1b (formerly known as E3b), originating either in the Horn of Africa[40] or the Near East[41], is by far the most common clade in North and Northeast Africa, and is also common throughout the majority of Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean and South Eastern Europe. E1b1b reaches its highest concentration in Greece and the Balkan region, but also enjoys a significant presence in other regions such as Hungary, Italy, Iberia and Austria. [18].[42].

    Outside of North and Northeast Africa, E1b1b’s two most prevalent clades are E1b1b1a (E-M78, formerly E3b1a) and E1b1b1b (E-M81, formerly E3b1b).

    E1b1b1a is the most common subclade of E1b1b and is present throughout Europe. Its main route of entry into the European continent was through Anatolia during the Neolithic, explaining the high frequency of this haplotype in the Balkan region. It is also relatively frequent in the Mediterranean countries. Unlike, E1b1b1b which is thought to have entered Europe in more recent times, this haplotype denotes a very ancient Northeast African contribution to the European gene-pool. E1b1b, which is at once the most common Y haplogroup among Ethiopians, Somalis, Eritreans and North African Berbers and Arabs, is also the third most frequently observed Y chromosome haplogroup in Europe. E1b1b has three common subclades: M78, M81, and M34.

    M78 is found throughout North and Northeast Africa, as well as the Near East and Europe. Its network shows high geographic structuring. The α cluster is particular to Europe, where it is highest in the Balkans. It enjoys frequencies of about 23.8% among Greeks[5] with a frequency of about 47% in the Peloponnese region of Greece,[5] about 25% among Albanians at large[5] with a frequency of 46% among Albanians in Kosovo[8], and frequencies of about 20% in some South Slavic populations (Serbs, Macedonians, Bulgarians)[9]. Among Jews both in Europe and the Middle East, E1b1b is the second most common Y haplogroup after J.[10]. A β and a γ cluster are particular to North and Northeast Africa, respectively. A fourth, δ, cluster is found in all regions albeit at low frequencies. Cruciani suggests that it was the δ cluster that spread M78 throughout North and Northeast Africa, the Near East and later Europe, c. 14 KYA. It was only during later population expansions bearing the α, β and γ clusters (which diverged from the δ cluster) that led to E1b1b’s current high frequency.

    In Northeast Africa, the subclade M34 appears to be restricted to Ethiopia. However, M34 chromosomes have been found in a large majority of the populations from the Near East. M34 chromosomes from Ethiopia show lower variances than those from the Near East and appear closely related in the M34 network. Thus, it is assumed that M34 chromosomes were introduced into Ethiopia from the Near East.[11]

    M81, the other major subclade of E1b1b, is heavily concentrated in North Africa among both the Berber and Arab populations of that region. M81 is also found, albeit at low frequencies of 1.6-4%, in Iberia. Cruciani attributes its presence in Iberia to a recent migration of M81 carrying peoples from the Maghreb, perhaps coinciding with the Islamic conquest of Spain.

    Scholars such as Hammer et al. and Semino et al. have linked the spread of E1b1b into Europe to an ancient migration from East Africa mediated through North African and Middle Eastern farmers during the Neolithic period. However, given the predominance of α cluster of subclade M78 in Europe, Cruciani concluded that it was spread through Europe via peoples indigenous to Southeastern Europe, perhaps in response to the arrival of Neolithic farming by way of cultural contact with the Near East. In turn, it originally arrived into Europe, perhaps, directly from North or Northeast Africa. Thus, its distribution is not simply due to a process of uniform spread of people from a single Near Eastern origin, but rather a series of distinct migrations.

    donovan, so you see haplogroup E3B is not an sub-saharan haplogroup, it is only found in ethiopia, north-africa and south-europe mainly. so you can say you can say it is limited to people who have hooked noses and so called caucasian bodytype. this what i meant when i told you that even europeans originated from ethiopia and are related to the most ethiopians.

    Critics also point out that the so-called “elongated” physique common to many Ethiopians, Eritreans and Somalis is strictly an adaptive response to living in a tropical environment and not a sign of shared racial ancestry with neighboring black groups as has been proposed (read therefore, Brace CL, Tracer DP, Yaroch LA, Robb J, Brandt K, Nelson AR (1993). Clines and clusters versus “race:” a test in ancient Egypt and the case of a death on the Nile. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 36:1–31.)

    E1b1b, which is at once the most common Y haplogroup among Ethiopians, Somalis, Eritreans and North African Berbers and Arabs, is also the third most frequently observed Y chromosome haplogroup in Europe. E1b1b has three common subclades: M78, M81, and M34.

    M78 is found throughout North and Northeast Africa, as well as the Near East and Europe. Its network shows high geographic structuring. The α cluster is particular to Europe, where it is highest in the Balkans. It enjoys frequencies of about 23.8% among Greeks[5] with a frequency of about 47% in the Peloponnese region of Greece,[5] about 25% among Albanians at large[5] with a frequency of 46% among Albanians in Kosovo[8], and frequencies of about 20% in some South Slavic populations (Serbs, Macedonians, Bulgarians)[9]. Among Jews both in Europe and the Middle East, E1b1b is the second most common Y haplogroup after J.[10]. A β and a γ cluster are particular to North and Northeast Africa, respectively. A fourth, δ, cluster is found in all regions albeit at low frequencies. Cruciani suggests that it was the δ cluster that spread M78 throughout North and Northeast Africa, the Near East and later Europe, c. 14 KYA. It was only during later population expansions bearing the α, β and γ clusters (which diverged from the δ cluster) that led to E1b1b’s current high frequency.

    In Northeast Africa, the subclade M34 appears to be restricted to Ethiopia. However, M34 chromosomes have been found in a large majority of the populations from the Near East. M34 chromosomes from Ethiopia show lower variances than those from the Near East and appear closely related in the M34 network. Thus, it is assumed that M34 chromosomes were introduced into Ethiopia from the Near East.[11]

    M81, the other major subclade of E1b1b, is heavily concentrated in North Africa among both the Berber and Arab populations of that region. M81 is also found, albeit at low frequencies of 1.6-4%, in Iberia. Cruciani attributes its presence in Iberia to a recent migration of M81 carrying peoples from the Maghreb, perhaps coinciding with the Islamic conquest of Spain.

    Scholars such as Hammer et al. and Semino et al. have linked the spread of E1b1b into Europe to an ancient migration from East Africa mediated through North African and Middle Eastern farmers during the Neolithic period. However, given the predominance of α cluster of subclade M78 in Europe, Cruciani concluded that it was spread through Europe via peoples indigenous to Southeastern Europe, perhaps in response to the arrival of Neolithic farming by way of cultural contact with the Near East. In turn, it originally arrived into Europe, perhaps, directly from North or Northeast Africa. Thus, its distribution is not simply due to a process of uniform spread of people from a single Near Eastern origin, but rather a series of distinct migrations.

    E1a (M33) headed for West Africa and today it is mainly present in the region of Mali. One study has found haplogroup E1a-M33 Y-chromosomes in as much as 34% (15/44) of a sample of Malian men. Haplogroup E1a has also been detected among samples obtained from Moroccan Berbers, Sahrawis, Burkina Faso, northern Cameroon, Senegal, Sudan, Egypt, and Calabria (including both Italian and Albanian inhabitants of the region).[5][6]

    The small presence (<4%) of Haplogroup E1a in North Africa, Ethiopia and Europe is generally attributed to the slave trade, as it is characteristic of West African populations.[5] so you see if you say ethiopians are genetically related to E1A west africans, you must say the same to the europeans, since E1b1b is also the 3rd most common haplogroup in europe…you see the nowadays ethiopians are in the same cluster as europeans and north africans and not the same cluster as west africans. beisde that 33 percent of amharas are in haplogroup J which is defintly limited to middle easterners is not found in west african populations at all. never mind, we are all humans and come from adam.

    peace.

  19. 19 Donavon Norwood Jul 31st, 2008 at 3:30 pm

    ethiopian warrior:

    Not true and that was a very good copy and paste from whatever source; the highest percentage of haplogroup in Ethiopia is the E1b1b (E3b); west Africans have the E1b1a haplogroup, however as you can see both Ethiopians and west Africans have the E1b1 (E3) sub-clade which makes them genetically the same people obviously, agree? However scientist are not explaining the split of the E1b1 (E3) haplogroup into two sub-clades:

    E1b1a (E3a) West Africa
    E1b1b (E3b) East Africa

    If they were all one family of Ethiopians with the E1b1 (E3) sub-clade, and one part of the family stayed in Ethiopia/Near East and one part of the family moving to South Africa, what made them genetically different resulting into them being split into two sub-clades of E1b1a (E3a) West Africa and E1b1b (E3b) East Africa? Ethiopia is closer to South Africa then it is to Europe by far; we also know from the Bible in Acts 10:28 that the Ethiopian Hebrew Israelites did not even keep company with Gentiles (Greeks, Romans, etc.), and remember Cornelius mention in this scripture was Greek in the Italian Regiment; we also know from Acts 18:2 that the Romans banned all the Israelites in Rome, and we know from history that the Romans persecuted the early Messiac (Church), our brethren of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tawahedo Church; furthermore we also know from Acts 21:27-29 you will see Israelites from Greece in Jerusalem ready to kill Paul because he brought Gentiles (Greeks) into the temple of Jerusalem, further conferring Ethiopian Hebrew Israelites dislike of Gentiles (Europeans). This type of behavior is further replicated during the war with Italy under Menelik II and WWII under Sallie Selassie; Ethiopians in Ethiopia were FURIOUS when Sallie Selassie went before the League of Nations and even more FURIOUS when he fled into Europe; so again you can obviously see the dislike of Gentiles (Europeans) by Ethiopians, because genetically most Ethiopians are Israelites and as according to the Bible and in history they do not like to intermix their blood except with other Ethiopians; this is the SAME mentality with the majority of so called African Americans. This makes very much sense because the E1b1b (E3b) haplogroup is only found in a very small percentage in Europe; if I remember from history one of the Ethiopian kings converted to Catholicism and was forced to abdicate his throne, again showing Ethiopians dislike of Gentiles (Europeans) and if I remember a Ethiopian Prince was sent to Europe and he died at a very young age because he was depressed and extremely homesick; the only conclusion of the E1b1b (E3b) being in Europe is probably Eritrea colonization by Italy which resulted in intermixture with Europeans and with Ethiopians living in Europe during Biblical times and present day which would obviously cause an intermix with Europeans.

    It absolutely foolish for you to say a Haplogroup E (Y-DNA) which originated in East Africa (Ethiopia)/Near East, and with both of its two of it’s sub-clades E1b1a (E3a) West Africa, E1b1b (E3b) East Africa found in HIGH PERCENTAGE in Africa, and then for you to say Ethiopians are more related to Europeans then West Africans, even with the fact that the E1b1a (E3a) of West Africa and the E1b1b (E3b) both having the E1b1 (E3) sub-clade. I understand now why some Ethiopians worship a Caucasian Jesus. Explain to me why the E1b1 (E3) haplogroup was split into two sub-clades:

    E1b1a (E3a) West Africa
    E1b1b (E3b) East Africa

    Genetically ALL AFRICANS ARE ETHIOPIANS PERIOD!

    Don

    http://www.tigerroundup.com/profile/DonavonMorrison

  20. 20 Jeff Oct 8th, 2008 at 8:57 am

    Donavon, I recently conducted an indepenent study on this same subject. I would like to speak to you more about it.

    phjrlj@hughes.net

  21. 21 Yoseph Ben Israel Oct 13th, 2008 at 11:41 pm

    I marvel at the scholarly statements in the previous conversations. One that offended me was the comment “like the African-American.” Yes the African-American is currently not himself–yet God (Yahwe Elohim/I Am That I Am) and Jesus (Yeshua the Messiah) still seeks to find the one sheep out of the fold that is lost. The oppressed and abused.

    In the last 400 years (1619-2019) the African-American has been in the captivity. Taken by boat (Deuteronomy 68:63-68), enslaved lost and despised by all. Like Yoseph he has toil in the furnace of the new Eygpt or Tower of Babel. Now all nations are gathered therein USA. In the last days of the Gentiles (Luke 21:24) many mock his state (Ecclesiastes 7:7), as Solomon said “Surely oppression maketh a wise man mad.”

    I would say to those who feel they are first, be humble for Yeshua has said at his appearance the first shall be last and the last first. In Matthew 11, we see John or Yohannes in prisoned. He sent his brethen to ask our Lord and Savior Yeshua the Messiah if he is the on or do they wait for another. Yeshua confirm his the Messiah and speaks of John be the greatest born of women–yet in verse 11 he said “not with standing he that is least in the kingdom of Heaven is greater then he.”

    I leave this thought. Out of one blood he has made the nations. What is left is not the scholarly thesis, but for all to repent. For the process of the cycle of Judgement has begun. Mark 1:15, Luke 13:1-5. If you are a believer you know that our Savior prayed for us John 17, in verses 20-22 it reads “Neither I pray for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word. That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be on in us: the world may believe that thou hast sent me. And the glory which thou gavest me I have given, that they may be one, even as we are one.

    Shalom/Selam/Peace…….

  22. 22 Basil Nov 8th, 2008 at 2:58 pm

    So I am a full on E3B – M35 according to the National Geographic Genographic test kit.
    Born in Romania from Romanian parents who were farmers and sheepherders from times immemorial. So I guess that yes, it’s true, color of skin means nothing and even neolithic farmers can become software developers.

  23. 23 thisis Dec 3rd, 2008 at 11:18 pm

    to ethiopian warrior:

    Its sad what racism has done to our people. You are ashamed of yourself and your country. I am a native east African whose tribe was also placed in the “Caucasian” category by colonialists. I know that I am 100% black African. I am not ashamed. God created us to be who we are. Telling yourself that the “habesha” are different from the rest of Africa is a manifestation of your low self-esteem. Measure your nose and look for all the “non-kinky” hair, and at the end of the day you are still who you are. Your children will know their true identity because this society will route them into the “Negro” category. Shame on you for bringing such filthy thinking into this public forum. By the way, there is nothing wrong with acting like an African-American. If it wasn’t for their struggle, I would not be living in the states. We stand on the shoulders of giants. Have some respect for yourself, your family, your ancestors and have some respect for African-Americans who suffered the humiliation slavery. Do not infect the rest of Ethiopia with this racial nonsense. Say it out loud “I am black and I am proud”. God bless.

  24. 24 Donavon Dec 19th, 2008 at 2:10 pm

    Basil:

    Yeah RIGHT!

  25. 25 kebra Wilyahmz Dec 27th, 2008 at 2:37 pm

    Its a real disapointment to hear an Ethiopian putting down his african race and trying to place it in the caucasion gene pool. But he is not the first neither will he be the last. But we who know the real Ethiopia from Genesis to Revalation. So we don’t need a european brainwashed ethiopian trying to convince Ethiopians they are more caucasion than african. I never thought I would live to hear an Ethiopian quoting Hitler to validate his race. But an Ethiopian living in Germany and quoting Hitler should tell you alot.

  26. 26 Black English Woman Mar 12th, 2009 at 7:03 pm

    Tears came to my eyes when I read this article and I called upon Almighty God to do something about our priests and their death. (I know they are not dead but waiting upon the Almighty) I am so appalled by what happened to our faithful priests. They maintained and uphold the true faith and I am so grateful for the work that they did and continue to do. I know that I must restrain my tongue because the things that I want so say might send the message to children and I don’t want to come across as a racist or such. Namely, because my Ethiopian friend once told me we are all brothers and sisters regardless of color or creed. If a man whose country has been through so much atrocities over the centuries can say those words to me, who am I to cuss their ass off. Nevertheless, I do know this, what does around comes right back around and only time will tell. I truly believe in Almighty God aka Yahwah, aka Yahovah aka YHWH and know that their deaths will not go unanswered from Almighty God. I love my Ethiopian sisters and brothers so much and ever since I read and learn’t about my original home Abyssinia My dream has been to go there and help my brothers and sisters in any way i can and as much as Almighty God will allow me to. I know that the Priests will return all 12 of them and I know that my Father sees all. I am black and comely and my Father told me that I soon will be separated from the Goats of this world. Keep up the Faith your sleep is temporary, you will be restored. You are the head and not the tail. The stone that the builders refused will become the head of the corner stone. I know the truth and believe me so many people like myself will see the truth soon and I pray very soon. I just had no idea of this horrific act. Was it Anthrax? or a clear poisonous smoke. So many of these poisons have come to light in the 20th century. All shall be revealed real soon. My Love to all my Ethiopian Brothers and Sisters who fear Almighty God and believe in the restoration of ALL that has been taken forceably from us. ONE LOVE.

    BLACK, BEAUTIFUL BRITISH WOMAN

  27. 27 JUDASHER Apr 21st, 2009 at 6:36 am

    Yasus,

    Does anyone know how to contact the monks in order to give assistance?

    One love

  28. 28 Oldtimer May 13th, 2009 at 10:41 am

    I would like to know how to go about making a donation to Deir es Sultan. Last year, while visiting Deir es Sultan, we accidentally left our camera bag with two very expensive cameras and equipment in the church. I did not discover the missing bag for several minutes after we left but upon my return, one of the priests was “guarding” the bag awaiting my return. I gave them a few dollars at the time but would like to show my appreciation in a greater amount if only I had an address. Can anyone please help me locate the correct mailing address?

    Thank you.

  29. 29 Nakia Jun 17th, 2009 at 3:40 pm

    Hello,

    I am reading this article, and very much enjoying it. I am an American born woman of Indigenous and African Ancestry. I am also Christian, Hebrew, and Ethiopian. I have always been fond of Ethiopia, and so proud of her, and claim her as my own. I am Ethiopian. When I read the Biblical history, this is my story. I also have no problem with the word Black. Many are preoccupied with color, and don’t want to indentify with Black. Let’s not forget. Black is not just a skin color, or certain features, for look at our people-we come in every possible physical type. It is a feeling deep within, a movement of a people, a shared experience. Something to be proud of indeed.

    Sister Nakia

  30. 30 SHAWN stancil Oct 26th, 2009 at 7:42 pm

    hi I am Shawn and my Y DNA is haplogroup e1b1a7a and according to that my ancestors were Israelites that came out of equatorial guinea and have matches in Madrid, Spain also. Just wondering that was my ancestors were dropped off from Spain to equatorial guinea which is the only Spanish speaking country in Africa besides Morocco. Wanted to know that if my family were Sephardim Israelites out of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin? So if you can give me an answer get back to me.

    Peace

  31. 31 EthiopianWarriorEritrean? Feb 12th, 2010 at 4:18 pm

    Could “Ethiopian Warrior” be in reality an Eritrean ?

    We often hear stories that Eritreans in the West say,when caught by police after committing crimes,that they are Ethiopians.Their intention is to harm the reputation of the country.

    They are also engaged in activities in the cyberspace that are harmful to Ethiopia.

    So it is likely that “Ethiopian Warrior” is an Eritrean and be cautious.
    Just FYI

  32. 32 Terry May 1st, 2010 at 6:17 pm

    My friends you keep using the term “Ethiopian” as if it refers to the nation of Ethiopia as it exist today. Please note the word “Ethiopia” is a greek word that means “burnt skin”. The Greeks used this term to describe all black people. You err by applying modern ideas of to antiquity. Furthermore, many of you have heard of DNA argument of the Cohanin Modal Haplotype – initially submitted – to assist Europeans to claim Israelite ancestry, however, the study itself does not prove that they descend from Abraham, Isaac, Jacob. The people of the book the “Hebrews” are truly a black people, just as the ancient egyptians were black, but clearly had different ethnic identies. The Hebrew people are currently in exile and are your so called villified Black Americans and brothers in the Carribean, and South America.

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